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中考英语复习专题之五

作者:皖智研究院  时间:2020/12/2 9:24:42  点击量:751

三大从句之定语从句

                          





一、定语从句的概念


在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。

二、定语从句的关系词


引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that,which,who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等,关系副词包括where,when,why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。

三、定语从句的分类


根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去;非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。

四、关系代词的用法


1.that既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。

eg:

(1)Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.

(2)The coat(that)I put on the desk is blue.


2.which用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语。作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。

eg:

(1)The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.

(2)The film(which)we saw last night was wonderful.


3.who /whom用于指人,who用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom,也可省略。

eg:

(1)The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.(作主语)

(2)Who is the teacher(whom)Li Ming is talking to?(作宾语)


注意:

(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who that which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。

eg:①This is the house in which we lived last year.

②Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.


(2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。

eg:This is the person whom you are looking for.


(3)that作介词的宾语时,介词不能放在它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。

eg:The city that she lives in is very far away.


(4)关系词只能用that的情况:

A.先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that.

eg:He was the first person that passed the exam.


B.先行词为all,any,much,many,everything,anything,none,the one等不定代词时,只能用that.

eg:Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop?


C.先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last,little,few等词修饰时,只能用that.

eg:This is the same bike that I lost.


D.先行词里同时含有人和物时,只能用that.

eg:I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.


E.who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.

eg:Who is the girl that is crying?


F.主句是there be结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that.

eg:There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom.


(5)关系词只能用which,而不用that的情况:

A.先行词为that,those时,用which而不用that.

eg:What’s that which is under the desk?


B.关系代词前有介词时,一般用which,而不用that.

eg:This is the room in which he lives.


C.引导非限制性定语从句,用which,而不用that.

eg:Tom came back,which made us happy.


五、关系副词的用法


关系副词:在句中作状语

关系副词=介词+关系代词

why=for which

Where=in/at/on…which(介词同先行词搭配)

When=during/in/on…which(介词同先行词搭配)

(1)when指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。

eg:This was the time when he arrived.


(2)where指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。

eg:This is place where he works.


(3)why指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用。

eg:Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school.


六、必须注意的问题


1.关系词作主语时,从句中谓语的数。
2.注意区别定语从句与强调句。(1)定语从句中关系词作从句重要成分,是复合句。(2)强调句中it无意义,that/who不是引导词。(3)强调句中去掉it is / was和that / who/which后如果句子意思讲得通则是强调句,讲不通则不是。eg:①It is the island that / which we spent 10 years.(定语从句)②It was in the hotel that we stayed last night.(强调句)
3.定语从句与同位语从句的区别。(1)定语从句引导词被称为关系词,that充当主语、宾语、表语。有时可省略。(2)同位语从句引导词被叫做连词,that不能充当任何成分,不可省。eg:①Word came that their army was defeated.(同位语)②Word expressed to them our wish that was the same as their.(定语)
4.关系词在从句中省略的情况。(1)关系词作宾语,前无介词时。(2)关系词作表语。
5.限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的翻译。
6.关系词前有介词或复杂介词,关系词只能是which和whom.
7.几个特殊的定语从句句型:(1)①Is this place the one(that)we visited yesterday?②Is this the place(that / which)we visited yesterday?(2)He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening.(3)It may rain, in which case the match will be put off.


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